Omega-3s and Mental Well-being

Can eating more omega – 3s really boost our moods? The answer, based on the available scientific and clinical evidence, seems to be a cautious yes. There are four lines of evidence supporting the role of omega-3 essential fatty acids in depression. First, there are compelling population studies linking the eating of large amounts of fish (omega-3 fatty acids)  to low rates of major depression. The second line of evidence includes neurochemical studies in animals  (looking at brain chemistry).

The Omega-3 Connection: The Groundbreaking Anti-depression Diet and Brain Program by Andrew L. Stoll

The omega-3 fatty acids are important not just for health; they’re important for happiness, too. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in high concentrations in fatty, carnivorous fish such as herring, mackerel, tuna, and salmon. (Smaller amounts are found in other fish.) In countries where more fish is consumed, there is a lower rate of depression. Omega-3 fish oils can elevate your mood. Besides their use for depression, studies have shown that is helpful for bipolar disorder, as well.
Supplement Your Prescription: What Your Doctor Doesn’t Know About Nutrition by Hyla Cass, M.D.

Jonathan Zeuss, who has no doubt that depression is “to a very large degree, a nutritionally caused disease,” touts the benefits benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. “They are absolutely crucial,” he says. “There is a huge amount of evidence now linking omega-3 deficiency deficiency and depression. Around a quarter of the dry weight of our brains brains is made up of omega-3s and if you are deficient in them, the cells in your brain brain malfunction and you are much more likely to become depressed.” Omega-3s are known as essential fatty acids.
The Food-Mood Connection: Nutrition-based and Environmental Approaches to Mental Health and Physical Wellbeing by Gary Null and Amy McDonald

Dietary advice to lower cholesterol levels tends to increase the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 and decreases the level of the essential omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexanoic acid. Population-based studies  in various countries and the United States have indicated that decreased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids correlates with increased rates of depression. There is a consistent association between depression and coronary artery disease. Food Allergies Depression and fatigue have been linked with food allergies for over sixty-five years.
Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Revised Second Edition by Michael T. Murray, N.D., Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D.

Donald Rudin and other authorities believe a deficiency of the Omega-3 fat is a main cause of depression and other mental disorders. Omega-3 fats work to keep us mentally and emotionally healthy and strong in three ways: 1. Omega-3 fats act as precursors for the body’s production of key prostaglandins. 2. Omega-3 fats provide the substrate for B vitamins and co-enzymes to produce compounds that regulate many vital functions. 3. Omega-3 fats provide energy and nourishment to our nerve and brain cells.
The Facts about Fats: A Consumer’s Guide to Good Oils by John Finnegan

The implications of omega-3 deficiency on the brain are profound and span the entire human life cycle. Beginning in pregnancy, premature birth and its potential neurologic complications may result from omega-3 deficiency. Babies who are bottle-fed or born from omega-3-deficient mothers will lack the omega-3 fatty acids necessary for optimal cognitive and visual development. Children deprived of omega-3s may have less ability to pay attention and control impulsive behavior and may be at higher risk for depression.
The Omega-3 Connection: The Groundbreaking Anti-depression Diet and Brain Program by Andrew L. Stoll

But the importance of omega-3s for the brain hardly stops after infancy. Too little omega-3s have been linked to both attention deficit disorder (ADD) and depression. Research at Harvard has shown significant improvement in bipolar depression with large doses of omega-3supplements. And studies have strongly suggested that increased fish oil intake could reduce anger and hostility in alchoholics, troubled teenagers, and violence-prone prisoners. “Clearly omega-3 fatty acids are essential to good brain health,” says my friend Daniel Amen, M.D.
The Most Effective Natural Cures on Earth: The Surprising, Unbiased Truth about What Treatments Work and Why by Jonny Bowden, Ph.D., C.N.S.

In his excellent book The Omega-3 Connection, Harvard Medical School professor Andrew Stoll, M.D., answers his own question, “Can eating more omega-3s really boost our mood?” with the statement: “The answer, based on the available scientific and clinical evidence, seems to be a cautious yes.” There are compelling population studies linking the consumption of large amounts of fish (omega-3 fatty acids) to low rates of depression. Controlled clinical trials of omega-3s in depression are under way at any number of research centers.
The 150 Healthiest Foods on Earth: The Surprising, Unbiased Truth About What You Should Eat and Why by Jonny Bowden, Ph.D., C.N.S.

Depressed people have been reported to have lower omega-3 fatty acid levels (e.g., DHA) than people who are not depressed. Low levels of the other omega-3 fatty acid from fish, EPA, have correlated with increased severity of depression. In a double-blind trial, people with manic depression were given a very high intake of supplemental omega-3 fatty acids (enough fish oil to contain 9.6 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day) for four months.
The Natural Pharmacy: Complete A-Z Reference to Natural Treatments for Common Health Conditions by Alan R. Gaby, M.D., Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., Forrest Batz, Pharm.D. Rick Chester, RPh., N.D., DipLAc. George Constantine, R.Ph., Ph.D. Linnea D. Thompson, Pharm.D., N.D.

As Omega-3 fatty acid levels fall, rates of depression increase. In countries where fish is consumed frequently, Omega-3 fatty acid levels are high and rates of depression are low, even in areas of the world that don’t get much sunlight. Note these “fat facts” as they relate to the brain: Depression has been linked to low levels of a fatty acid called phos-phatidylserine. A number of studies have made the correlation between depression and low levels of cholesterol.
The Crazy Makers: How the Food Industry Is Destroying Our Brains and Harming Our Children by Carol Simontacchi

The high prevalence of depression in patients with coronary artery disease, alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, and postpartum depression might be linked by low concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in nerve membranes,” explains Dr. Hibbeln. “We’re suggesting that deficient levels of the omega-3s in the nervous system may increase the vulnerability to depression, just as a deficient level in the circulation may increase vulnerability to heart disease.” It’s also possible that fat affects mood by regulating serotonin.
Food & Mood: The Complete Guide to Eating Well and Feeling Your Best, Second Edition by Elizabeth Somer, M.A., R.D.

According to an article in Preventative Medicine, “Growing evidence likewise suggests a role for omega-3 fatty acids in helping to relieve disabling depression. Fatty acids may provide relief for people of all ages and genders who are afflicted by depression” (2006 January, pp. 4-13). In fact, one specific study reported in the American Journal of Psychiatry (June 1, 2006, pp. 1098-1100), reported that “childrenwith depression benefit from omega-3supplementation.”
Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, And Stimulants – Dangerous Drugs on Trial by Dr David W Tanton, Ph.D.

This relative deficiency of omega-3 fats has potentially serious implications. Also, the consumption of too much omega-6 fat leads to high levels of arachidonic acid (AA). Higher levels of arachidonic acid can promote inflammation. When we have insufficient omega-3 fat, we do not produce enough DHA, a long-chain omega-3 fat with anti-inflammatory effects. High levels of arachidonic acid and low levels of omega-3 fats can be a contributory cause of heart disease, stroke, autoimmune diseases, skin diseases, depression, and possibly increased cancer incidence.
Eat to Live: The Revolutionary Formula for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss by Dr. Joel Fuhrman

In fact, there is a sixty-fold difference in depression rates across countries from the highest (Japan and Taiwan) to the lowest (North America, Europe, and New Zealand) omega-3 fat consumption. Even postpartum depression decreases as women increase their consumption of fish. Many people also report a drop in mood when they switch too quickly to a low-fat diet. In addition, serious depression is seen in up to 70 percent of alcoholics. Studies on animals demonstrate that long-term alcohol consumption depletes omega-3 fatty acids in nerve tissue, but this is reversed after prolonged abstinence.
Food & Mood: The Complete Guide to Eating Well and Feeling Your Best, Second Edition by Elizabeth Somer, M.A., R.D.

A low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to or worsen asthma symptoms symptoms, most likely due to increased inflammation. The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids has been shown to be low in asthma sufferers. Supplements may be useful in relieving symptoms in some asthmatics, although not all studies have shown beneficial effects. Recent research suggests that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may also be linked to depression and aggression.
The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs by Nicola Reavley

Omega-3 fatty acids, powerful weapons in the fight against heart disease, may also help you win the battle against depression. Research shows that in countries where people eat a lot of fish, a good source of omega-3s, the incidence of depression is low. In one study, Japanese students who took a daily fish oil supplement for three months were less hostile and aggressive than their peers. Some experts warn that there are too many other cultural differences to be absolutely sure fish are helping to ward off depression. In the meantime, eating more fish can’t hurt.
Natural Cures and Gentle Medicines: That Work Better Than Dangerous Drugs or Risky Surgery by Frank K. Wood

One hundred grams of fresh purslane leaves (about 1 cup) can contain up to 300 to 400 mg of alpha-linolenic acid, the same omega-3 found in flaxseed. Purslane also contains small amounts of the longer-chain omega-3s (DHA and EPA), which are rarely found in anything but fish and fish oil. Omega-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, heart-healthy fats that have been found beneficial in hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and depression. The more omega-3s we eat, the better!
The 150 Healthiest Foods on Earth: The Surprising, Unbiased Truth About What You Should Eat and Why by Jonny Bowden, Ph.D., C.N.S.

Scientists don’t know exactly how omega3’s protect against depression, but they do know that the fats are important to health of neurons, or brain cells. To get sufficient omega-3’s to battle depression, Dr. Zuess recommends taking approximately 10 grams a day of DHA and EPA, which usually amounts to about 30 fish-oil capsules daily. Take them in divided doses with meals. This remedy is safe for long-term use.
Alternative Cures: The Most Effective Natural Home Remedies for 160 Health Problems by Bill Gottlieb

Omega-3 fatty acids also aid in the prevention of emotional disorders, and a deficiency can contribute to severe depression. The brain is the top source of fatty acids in the body body, and it requires the omega-3s for optimal functioning. Add one or two tablespoons of flax seed oil to green leafy vegetable salads to get the full complement of daily omega-3 fatty acids.
Food Swings: Make the Life-Changing Connection Between the Foods You Eat and Your Emotional Health and Well-Being by Barnet Meltzer, M.D.

Stoll suggests the omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil may slow down neurons in your brain, much like the drug Lithium, which is used to treat manic depression. Another research group from England noticed depressed people had less omega-3 fatty acids in their red blood cells than healthy people. The more severe the depression, the less omega-3. There is even evidence that EPA can help treat people with schizophrenia, a serious mental illness that can cause delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized behavior.
Eat and Heal (Foods That Can Prevent or Cure Many Common Ailments) by the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing

The part of the brain that Omega-3 effects is the learning ability, anxiety/ depression, and auditory and visual perception. The Omega-3 fats also aid in balancing the autoimmune system, and there seem to be a growing number of children with allergies, colic, and skin problems. There are also indications that Omega-3 fats play an ongoing role in brain function, healthy immune system function, and general growth throughout childhood and adolescence. One study revealed that Omega-3 supplementation induced catch-up growth in a deficient, underdeveloped seven-year-old.

Make the Hangover go away with Cerebrafil

Your Brain on Alcohol: How Can You Make A Hangover Go Away

Has last night’s delight turned into this morning’s demon? How can alcohol, a simple molecule composed of only a few natural elements, create the havoc of a hangover? Most important, how can you make the hangover go away. 

Alcohol’s very simplicity (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) accounts for its unmatched affinity for the brain and its broad range of negative effects. A hangover is basically a milder version of the withdrawal symptoms suffered by alcoholics. It can persist for 24 hours or more.

You may just feel a bit irritable and overly sensitive, fatigued or muddled. Your muscles might ache or even tremor. You could have a mild or a killer headache. Your stomach could be upset or you could become nauseous. Worst case scenario: a person who passes out from nausea can die of asphyxiation.

One thing for sure, you will be dehydrated after drinking alcohol.  The cure for a hangover is plenty of water and Cerebrafil.  You may avoid a hangover altogether by consuming DHA as a pure Triglyceride prior to consuming alcohol.

Alcohol and Brain Fats
Alcohol decreases levels of DHA in the brain, a specialized fatty acid essential to healthy brain cell membranes, which are rich in DHA. According to research by Dr. R.J. Pawlosky at the National Institutes of Health, alcohol not only appears to dissolve the DHA already in the brain’s membranes, it also blocks the enzyme that manufactures DHA from dietary fats. This is not good, because lower concentrations of DHA in the nervous system are associated with a loss of nervous system function. 

This same enzyme (D6D) blocked by alcohol is also responsible for manufacturing gamma linolenic acid (GLA) which in turn makes the crucial anti-inflammatory PGE1 prostaglandins. When PGE1 levels are low, the inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2 dominates — which is often the norm today and why so many people need to take over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (D6D is also inhibited by stress, aging, trans fatty acids, viruses, and common medications.)

Water Works
The fundamental cure for a hangover is time and rest, plus plenty of pure water. Drinking alcohol upsets the body’s fluid balance as far more water is lost than taken in. When the brain becomes dehydrated, its outer covering (dura matter) can temporarily shrink and cause the painful sensation of a headache. Alcoholics can have shrunken internal areas of the brain.

Marrku Linnoila, a researcher at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, thinks the loss of electrolytes may contribute to hangover symptoms. He suggests replacing these electrolytes with a nightcap of one of the sports drinks that contain fresh supplies of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as water.

Bull’s Eye
There are some nutritional approaches that can intervene to prevent or diminish your hangover. If traditional folk remedies and modern hangover formulas work, it’s because they support the body’s natural alcohol detoxification process.

A classic remedy for hangover called the Bull’s Eye is simply a glass of orange juice containing a raw egg. (Warning: raw eggs may contain salmonella, so use soft-boiled ones.) The juice supplies vitamin C and fructose; the egg is especially high in the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and taurine.

Your liver needs cysteine to detoxify acetaldehyde, the first byproduct of its breakdown of alcohol. Acetaldehyde is approximately 30 times more toxic than alcohol. Used in the manufacture of adhesives and plastics, it is a close chemical cousin of formaldehyde. (Did somebody say embalming fluid?)

A powerful free radical generator, acetaldehyde is a potent neurotoxin that crosses your blood-brain barrier and is the primary culprit in a hangover. Acetaldehyde causes inflammation and depression, and interferes with energy production in the brain. It disrupts cellular function through its reactive tendency to cross-link molecules. (A good example of cross-linked tissue is the leathery skin of elderly alcoholics who spend a lot of time outdoors).

While the liver quickly converts the ethyl alcohol you drink into acetaldehyde, it is much slower at converting the acetaldehyde into acetic acid (which eventually is broken down into carbon dioxide and water). One of the biggest factors in a person’s susceptibility to alcohol damage is their enzymatic ability to detoxify acetaldehyde. The longer acetaldehyde remains in the body, the worse the hangover. Furthermore, enzyme activity and liver function tend to diminish with age, disease, poor nutrition, and alcoholism.

Nutrients that Counteract Acetaldehyde
Important research on acetaldehyde was done in the 1970s at the National Cancer Institute by Herbert Sprince, M.D. When he pretreated rats with large doses of vitamin B1, vitamin C, and cysteine, they were able to survive a normally lethal dose of acetaldehyde.

Cysteine is available in supplement form, but to be effective it needs plenty of vitamin C. Steven Wm. Fowkes, editor of Smart Drug News, has found a combination that he says works remarkably well. “I use capsules (because they dissolve fast) containing 200 mg cysteine plus 600 mg of vitamin C (with or without extra B-1). I take one before I start drinking, one with each additional drink and one when IЖm finished.” (Vitamin E and selenium also support cysteine’s action.)

Your liver also needs cysteine (plus glutamic acid and glycine) to make glutathione, a crucial protective compound whose deficiency first affects the nervous system, causing hangover-like symptoms.

Taurine is another important amino acid that may help hangovers. Your liver makes taurine from cysteine, but because the cysteine is busy detoxing acetaldehyde, taurine may be in short supply. Taurine is an antioxidant and has a protective effect on the brain, particularly when the brain is dehydrated.

Taurine is used to counteract anxiety, hyperactivity, and even to treat seizures. It helps calm overexcited brain cells that are withdrawing from the effects of excess alcohol. Studies show that taurine levels naturally increase in the brain in response to both acute and chronic exposure to ethanol.

Do B Do B Do
Acetaldehyde rapidly destroys vitamin B1, thiamine. Originally known as the nerve vitamin, thiamine is crucial to brain function. Poor nutrition combined with a chronic B1 deficiency induced by excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to a condition known as Korsakoff’s psychosis, which involves memory loss similar to Alzheimer’s disease.

Durk Pearson at Life Enhancement tells how, when vitamin B1 became available in an injectable form earlier this century, interns discovered they could treat a hangover by injecting large doses of it.

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) aids the body in alcohol detoxification. Known as the anti-stress vitamin, B5 can become depleted in the detoxification of acetaldehyde. A deficiency of pantothenic acid may contribute to the hangover symptoms of headache, nausea, and fatigue.

All the B vitamins need regular replenishing — more so after drinking alcohol. Try taking a B-complex before, during, and as soon after a drinking session as possible. The same goes with vitamin C, which is perhaps why tomatoes are a common ingredient in many hangover remedies. Tomatoes are high in B vitamins and in vitamin C, the body’s primary antioxidant nutrient.

An Oxidant Waiting to Happen
After alcohol turns to acetaldehyde, the production of free radicals increases. These highly reactive forms of oxygen damage the structural fats that give your brain cell membranes their strength and fluidity. Brain function is compromised depending on how much alcohol is consumed as well as for how long one has been a drinker.

To combat the destructive action of free radical oxidants, your brain must have an ample supply of antioxidants. Basically, antioxidants are chemicals that oxygen finds more attractive than the structural components of your cells. Antioxidants sacrifice themselves to preserve your body parts.

In addition to their vitamin C content, orange juice and tomato juice also contain a good dose of potassium, a mineral that is lost during urination when drinking. Low levels of potassium can contribute to feelings of weakness and shakiness. This may be the basis of a Chinese folk remedy for hangovers that says to boil a couple of banana peels in water and drink the liquid.

Folk Remedies Fight Free Radicals
Perhaps vitamin C has something to do with the Ayurvedic remedy of drinking fresh orange with a teaspoon of lime juice and a pinch of cumin stirred in . . . or the Puerto Rican folk remedy for hangovers that recommends rubbing a quarter lemon into each armpit. Chinese remedies include drinking fresh mandarin orange or tangerine juice.

Another Chinese folk cure is to eat 8 to 10 fresh strawberries, all at once. In addition to vitamin C and minerals, strawberries contain significant amounts of another antioxidant, lycopene.

Tomatoes are also very high in lycopene, the protective plant compound that gives them their distinctive red color. A French study found that alcoholic men had significantly lower concentrations of lycopene and other carotenoids in their blood than men who consumed low or moderate amounts of alcohol.

Prostaglandin Pressures and Pleasures
Supplements of preformed GLA may help increase levels of PGE1, which can alleviate hangover symptoms associated with inflammation and swelling, such as headache and aching muscles — even depression. In a Scottish study, GLA supplements dramatically reversed depression in certain alcoholics (Celtic, Scandinavian, Scottish, Welsh, American Indian). Again, it’s genetic racial factors that affect enzyme activity and account for the inability of some people to withstand alcohol while others seem impervious to it.

It’s interesting to note that the reason why a first drink may feel good is because alcohol has the ability to briefly activate the tiny levels of PGE1 that exist within the brain. This provides a welcome temporary relief from depression, but soon leads to a crash when the PGE1 reserve is depleted.

GLA is available in capsules of evening primrose oil. DHA is available in capsules of oil derived from fish or microalgae.

Honey, Please Pass the Blood Sugar
In an informative 1998 report, Jim Roberts describes an 18th century hangover recipe which instructs “the afflicted to suck on a sugar cube containing drops of clove oil, then chew on a sprig of parsley, followed by a cup of chamomile tea (sweetened with honey), followed by teaspoons of honey every half-hour for two to three hours. Clove was considered a painkiller back then, and parsley and chamomile were thought to soothe the stomach muscles.” Parsley is also a good source of vitamin C.

Honey and fruit juices are common ingredients in hangover remedies, probably because they raise low blood sugar (glucose) levels and relieve hypoglycemia. Alcohol depletes the glucose reserves in the liver (stored as glycogen), so the brain is deprived of glucose and hence the energy it needs for normal functioning.

Low blood sugar may account for hangover symptoms of lethargy. Also when alcohol breaks down, acidic byproducts can build up in the blood and cause muscular weakness. Ian Calder, an anaesthetist at London’s National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, says that both problems can be remedied by consuming extra sugar.

Magnesium Calms the Jitters
Acetaldehyde causes magnesium to be flushed out through the kidneys. Low levels of magnesium can cause nerves to fire too easily — even from minor stimuli. This can result in jangled nerves and a hypersensitive brain where even mild noises sound excessively loud, lights seem too bright, and emotional reactions are exaggerated.

An extreme case of alcohol-induced magnesium deficiency is delirium tremens, a life-threatening effect of withdrawal that is a medical emergency. It is characterized by sweating, shaking, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, agitation, and disturbances of memory. Emergency room treatment for the d.t.’s includes injections of magnesium sulfate.

Fifty Ways to Love Your Liver
Because your liver is the organ responsible for detoxifying alcohol, its health is paramount. Basically, it needs all known vitamins, minerals, and amino acids, including special nutrients such as lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC).

In addition, certain phytonutrients found in plants seem to promote or even repair liver function. These include milk thistle (silymarin), dandelion root, and turmeric (curcumin). Siberian ginseng supports the liver and is associated with people remaining alcohol-free after going through rehabilitation. For next day hangover relief, some swear by a shot of liquid ginseng chased by a tumbler of water.

Other Hangover Remedies
Some people use aromatherapy to clear their head or inhale apple-scented oxygen at one of the new “oxygen bars” that are cropping up in major cities. Others consume a few charcoal tablets as a remedy for hangovers, which is similar to a 19th century practice by chimney sweeps who drank warm milk with a teaspoon of soot. Nux vomica is the classic homeopathic remedy for people who feel woozy or nauseous after drinking too much alcohol.

A Promising Plant is Knocking at Our Door
Kudzu is a plant that’s best known in the United States because it has been spreading unchecked throughout the South. But in China, an extract from this edible vine has long been used to treat headaches and hangovers. The Japanese make a hangover remedy tea with equal parts of kudzu root, umeboshi plum, and fresh ginger root.

A 1993 Harvard study found that alcohol-craving hamsters treated with kudzu extracts rapidly lost their appetite for alcohol and voluntarily cut their consumption by 50%. Animal studies done in 1996 at the Indiana University School of Medicine showed that daidzin, an isoflavonoid extracted from kudzu (Pueraria lobata), lowering blood alcohol levels. Daidzin and two other compounds from the plant also were effective in suppressing voluntary alcohol consumption by the rats.

Modern Formulations Put It All Together
A well-nutrified body is a good start, but taking extra nutrients before, during, and after a drinking session is usually necessary if you want to prevent or minimize a hangover. To sum it up, some key nutrients include: vitamin C, B-complex (with extra B1 and B5), magnesium, cysteine, taurine, lycopene, GLA, DHA, and kudzu.

Other nutrients include Siberian ginseng, MSM (a good source of bioavailable sulfur), and NAC (a stable form of cysteine and precursor to glutathione). GABA is an amino acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and keeps nerve cells from over firing. It may also be of value to help calm the hypersensitivity associated with a hangover.

Perhaps the two most comprehensive anti-hangover formulas available today are Source Naturals Hangover Formula™ and Life Enhancement’s Party Pill II™. They combine many of the above nutrients plus a broad range of supporting ones.

Some Basic Preventative Measures
If you take some preventive measures before and during your drinking episodes, you have the best chance of minimizing the symptoms of a hangover.

  • Don’t drink on an empty stomach. Fatty protein foods such as cheese or cold cuts absorb alcohol the best and will slow down the rate at which it enters your bloodstream.
  • Drink slowly. At best, your liver can only break down about one ounce of alcohol per hour.
  • Be aware that champagne and carbonated mixed drinks will accelerate the absorption of alcohol into your bloodstream.
  • Know your limit and the effects of different kinds of alcohol. Darker drinks such as red wine, brandy, and port are higher in “congeners,” ingredients that tend to worsen hangovers.
  • To ward off dehydration, drink plenty of pure water during and after alcohol use, including during the night when you wake. (Coffee is not advised because it contributes to dehydration.)
  • Don’t try to cure your hangover with more alcohol (“hair of the dog”).

WARNING — Before and While You Drink:
Never take Tylenol (acetaminophen). Combined with alcohol, it can cause severe liver damage. Also, don’t take aspirin, because it will make you drunker.

Regarding the use of over-the-counter pain medication, the Mayo Clinic advised in their Dec. 1997 Health Letter: “Acetaminophen [Tylenol] or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, may help relieve your headache. However, they’re not risk-free. NSAIDS, when combined with alcohol, may irritate your stomach. And excessive doses of acetaminophen can be toxic to your liver, particularly when combined with alcohol.”

Final Notes
Alcohol temporarily deactivates the protective capabilities of your blood-brain barrier, making your brain more vulnerable to toxic substances, most of which cause free radical damage which can kill brain cells. What’s more, several studies conducted since the 1980s suggest that ethanol accentuates the damage caused by lead and aluminum in the brain.

Alcohol triggers the release of stress hormones from the adrenal glands. Current research is shedding light on the real dangers these hormones do to memory and longevity. Click here for more information about the effects of stress on brain health and fitness. (And, click here to learn about ways to activate your relaxation response.)

References
Sprince, H., et al., “Protectants against acetaldehyde toxicity: Sulfhydryl compounds and ascorbic acid.” Fed Proc 33(3) (Part 1): March 1974. Sprince, H., et al., Agents and Actions 5(2): 164-73, 1975. Sprince, H., et al., Intl J Vit Nutr Res 47 (Supplement 1G): 185-212, 1977.
De Witte, P., et al., “Acute and chronic alcohol injections increase taurine in the nucleus accumbens.” Alcohol Alcohol Suppl 1994;2:229-33.
Dahchour, A., et al., “Taurine increases in the nucleus accumbens microdialysate after acute ethanol administration to naive and chronically alcoholised rats.” Brain Res 1996 Sep 30;735(1):9-19
Montoliu, C., et al, “Ethanol-induced oxygen radical formation and lipid peroxidation in rat brain: effect of chronic alcohol consumption.” J Neurochem, 63(5):1855-62 1994 Nov
Lecomte, E,. et al., “The relation of alcohol consumption to serum carotenoid and retinol levels. Effects of withdrawal.” Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994;64(3):170-5
Pawlosky, R.J., et al., “Ethanol exposure causes a decrease in docosahexaenoic acid and an increase in docosapentaenoic acid in feline brains and retinas.” Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1284-89
Lin, R.C., et al., “Isoflavonoid compounds extracted from Pueraria lobata suppress alcohol preference in a pharmacogenetic rat model of alcoholism.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 20(4):659-63 1996 Jun
Mathews-Larson, Joan, “An End to the Revolving Door.” Addiction & Recovery, June 1990
“Drunk as a Skunk,” New Scientist, Dec. 20, 1997
Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw, “Why Not Party-Proof Yourself This Summer?” Life Enhancement, June 1998
Fowkes, S.W., “Living with Alcohol,” Smart Drug News, Dec. 13, 1996

 

Fish is brain food, and the oil is why.

The Amazing Super Brain Food – Omega 3

Two Time USA Memory Champion, memory training expert, and memory keynote – Ron White, shares his thoughts on the amazing benefits of Omega-3.

We all have moments of short-term memory loss, like when we forget where we put our car keys, or forgot to pick up something at the store. Those bouts are pesky, but normal occurrences.

For those who suffer from more frequent “Senior Moments” this is a growing concern. Is there a simple memory improvement pill or something that will help you?

Memory loss can come from a variety of different things – like diabetes, dehydration, illness, low iron and calcium levels, and heart problems that restrict flow of oxygen to the brain. There is also the onset of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, that will inhibit the body’s memory system.

Numerous studies have been conducted to show memory loss is not limited to “senior moments,” but is happing more and more to high school and college students. It has become a growing problem in woman approaching middle age, and after 50 both sexes show a decline. Since memory is important to any age, we are constantly searching for memory improvement tips and techniques.

Protein-rich Omega 3 is essential for pregnant women. As the baby grows it drains fat from the mother, and can reduce her brain by ½ its fat supply. If she doesn’t replenish her Omega 3s there is a high risk of postpartum depression, and it could take up to four years to replace the fat her brain has lost.

One of the best tips is to increase your intake of protein-rich Omega 3. Omega 3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are crucial for the effective functioning of our heart and brain. Since it is not something our bodies produce we have to rely on supplements and food to give us that ‘brain foods” boost.

You can find Omega 3 in cold water fish – such as salmon, sardines, tuna, mackerel and Hoki. It’s also present in soybeans, tofu, walnuts and flaxseed oil. Best of all – Omega 3 is not hard to find in supplements form available at most pharmacies and local health food stores. There is no aftertaste, no need for refrigeration, and it’s easy to swallow for adults and children.

Since the market has been flooded with supplements that claim to be rich in Omega 3 you will need to be careful – not all are created equal.  Look for fish oil high in EPA and DHA content. The best is extracted from the Hoki fish, found in southern New Zealand. Even better – look for “molecularly distilled” fish oil supplements that have distilled all the toxins and contaminants like mercury and other metals, and is safe for human consumption.

The essential fatty acids in Omega 3 have been shown to increase calcium levels and improve bone strength. They contain blood-thinning properties that help prevent the blood clotting and blockage of arteries that causes coronary heart disease (People taking these supplements have a 70% lower risk of suffering strokes or heart attacks). The fish oil lowers the triglycerides in the blood to maintain good cholesterol (HDL) levels.

Doctors have used Omega 3 in the treatment of mental problems such as schizophrenia, depression and sleep disorders. People suffering from arthritis, osteoporosis and joint pain have found relief after taking this supplement, and newly discovered is the fact that it aids in the recovery from burns.

The important fatty acids work to enhance communication between nerve cells (neuro-transmitters), which will improve your memory as well as raise your IQ.

A proper diet and exercise program is always advisable, and it is recommended you get an OK from your doctor before you start any new supplements or diet change. You may be able to enlighten him/her on the amazing possibilities these brain foods will make in your overall health.

 

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Omega 3 Fatty Acids are essential compounds for human health and growth. There are three of these compounds that have particular beneficial effects on your health: Alpha linolenic acid or ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid or DHA. Optimal function of the human brain depends on presence of Omega 3 fatty acids. They are essential building materials for the brain during development and crucial to proper brain function and maintenance. These fatty acids improve communication between the cells and are the main ingredient for making myelin sheaths, a protective membrane covering tissue connecting neurons. Deficiencies can lead to hyperactivity, attention deficiency disorder (ADD), dyslexia, violence, depression, memory loss and various behavioral disorders.

DHA

DHA is an important constituent of the dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain that are intricately associated with attention management and mood balancing. During child development the brain forms new neural pathways to facilitate learning. DHA is the critical component of the delicate neural synapses. In the absence of Omega 3 in the blood stream, the brain uses other types of fat to synthesize DHA. However, the shapes of trans-fat molecules and omega 3 molecules are not the same and therefore lead to imperfect construction of the synapses. The neural network gradually becomes deformed ultimately leading to the development of learning, memory and behavioral disorders.

Other Body Benefits

Omega 3’s have been also shown to have wide ranging effects on the body. Studies suggest that Omega 3’s impact: cholesterol levels (lowering LDL or ‘bad cholesterol’ and increasing HDL or ‘good cholesterol’), coronary health, the immune system, developmental health, skin, fatigue and Cancer!

Choosing Foods With Omega 3

The body cannot synthesize its own Omega 3 fatty acids. But it can synthesize alpha linolenic acid into all the other Omega 3’s the body needs. So when looking for sources of Omega 3’s make sure to choose foods high in alpha-linolenic acid. Below are fantastic natural sources of Omega 3’s that are found in vegetables and fish but nowadays all kinds of foods are being fortified with Omega 3’s such as eggs, chicken, bread, milk etc.

Seafood

Salmon – Wild is better than farmed.
Sardines
Trout
Mackerel
Halibut
Oysters
Herring
Anchovies
Mussels
Clams
Albacore Tuna
Huss/Dogfish
Crab
Vegetables and Nuts

Seaweed
Broccoli
Spinach
Avocado
Olives/Olive Oil
Flax Seed/Oil
Hemp Seed/Oil
Canola Seed/oil
Pumpkin Seed/Oil
Soybean oil
Walnut Nuts/Oil
Tofu
Add Omega 3 To Your Diet

With all it’s positive effects on the body and especially the brain, it’s a shame that North Americans do not get enough Omega 3 Fatty Acid in their diets. Research has proven that a diet rich in Omega 3’s can be beneficial in numerous ways. Try to make some different choices in your diet to regularly include more dark green, leafy vegetables and/or more fish to increase your intake of natural Omega 3 fatty acid. If you just can’t bring yourself to eat more veggies and fish, there are various supplements available that make it easy to get more Omega 3 into your diet.

Sugar may promote Cancer

With an organization such as the FDA assigned to protect the American people from dangerous and unethical food manufacturing practices, how have they found it acceptable to endanger the well being of 280 million sugar eating Americans by allowing this poison to be legally distributed to Men Woman and Children.  Where is the warning label on these processed foods containing evident carcinogens. It seems that the FDA serves as an agency more concerned with keeping the corporations who tread above the moral line inconsequential, and the legal line essential. Perhaps the FDA is doing more harm then good due to the fact that the general populous may be under the misguided impression that if the FDA says it’s ok then it must be ok.  We would not require the services of an agency that monitors manufacturing food companies if we did not eat manufactured foods.  Our healthcare costs have become unmanageable, our mental dispositions have become so disturbed that there are between 10-20 new drugs released each year to treat psychopharmacological diseases, and another bunch, for cancers, organ failures, congestive heart failure, many of which can be treated by changing the way we eat and assuming the responsibility to regulate our own diets.

It puzzles me why the simple concept “sugar feeds cancer” can be so dramatically overlooked as part of a comprehensive cancer treatment plan. Of the 4 million cancer patients being treated in America today, hardly any are offered any scientifically guided nutrition therapy beyond being told to “just eat good foods.” I believe many cancer patients would have a major improvement in their outcome if they controlled the supply of cancer’s preferred fuel, glucose. By slowing the cancer’s growth, patients allow their immune systems and medical debulking therapies — chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to reduce the bulk of the tumor mass — to catch up to the disease. Controlling one’s blood-glucose levels through diet, supplements, exercise, meditation and prescription drugs when necessary can be one of the most crucial components to a cancer recovery program. The sound bite — sugar feeds cancer — is simple. The explanation is a little more complex. The 1931 Nobel laureate in medicine, German Otto Warburg, Ph.D., first discovered that cancer cells have a fundamentally different energy metabolism compared to healthy cells. The crux of his Nobel thesis was that malignant tumors frequently exhibit an increase in anaerobic glycolysis — a process whereby glucose is used as a fuel by cancer cells with lactic acid as an anaerobic byproduct — compared to normal tissues. The large amount of lactic acid produced by this fermentation of glucose from cancer cells is then transported to the liver. This conversion of glucose to lactate generates a lower, more acidic pH in cancerous tissues as well as overall physical fatigue from lactic acid buildup. Thus, larger tumors tend to exhibit a more acidic pH. This inefficient pathway for energy metabolism yields only 2 moles of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy per mole of glucose, compared to 38 moles of ATP in the complete aerobic oxidation of glucose. By extracting only about 5 percent (2 vs. 38 moles of ATP) of the available energy in the food supply and the body’s calorie stores, the cancer is “wasting” energy, and the patient becomes tired and undernourished. This vicious cycle increases body wasting. It is one reason why 40 percent of cancer patients die from malnutrition, or cachexia. Hence, cancer therapies should encompass regulating blood-glucose levels via diet, supplements, non-oral solutions for cachectic patients who lose their appetite, medication, exercise, gradual weight loss and stress reduction. Professional guidance and patient self-discipline are crucial at this point in the cancer process. The quest is not to eliminate sugars or carbohydrates from the diet but rather to control blood glucose within a narrow range to help starve the cancer and bolster immune function. The glycemic index is a measure of how a given food affects blood-glucose levels, with each food assigned a numbered rating. The lower the rating, the slower the digestion and absorption process, which provides a healthier, more gradual infusion of sugars into the bloodstream. Conversely, a high rating means blood-glucose levels are increased quickly, which stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin to drop blood-sugar levels. This rapid fluctuation of blood-sugar levels is unhealthy because of the stress it places on the body Sugar in the Body and Diet Sugar is a generic term used to identify simple carbohydrates, which includes monosaccharides such as fructose, glucose and galactose; and disaccharides such as maltose and sucrose (white table sugar). Think of these sugars as different-shaped bricks in a wall. When fructose is the primary monosaccharide brick in the wall, the glycemic index registers as healthier, since this simple sugar is slowly absorbed in the gut, then converted to glucose in the liver. This makes for “time-release foods,” which offer a more gradual rise and fall in blood-glucose levels. If glucose is the primary monosaccharide brick in the wall, the glycemic index will be higher and less healthy for the individual. As the brick wall is torn apart in digestion, the glucose is pumped across the intestinal wall directly into the bloodstream, rapidly raising blood-glucose levels. In other words, there is a “window of efficacy” for glucose in the blood: levels too low make one feel lethargic and can create clinical hypoglycemia; levels too high start creating the rippling effect of diabetic health problems. The 1997 American Diabetes Association blood-glucose standards consider 126 mg glucose/dL blood or greater to be diabetic; 111 to 125 mg/dL is impaired glucose tolerance and less than 110 mg/dL is considered normal. Meanwhile, the Paleolithic diet of our ancestors, which consisted of lean meats, vegetables and small amounts of whole grains, nuts, seeds and fruits, is estimated to have generated blood glucose levels between 60 and 90 mg/dL. Obviously, today’s high-sugar diets are having unhealthy effects as far as blood-sugar is concerned. Excess blood glucose may initiate yeast overgrowth, blood vessel deterioration, heart disease and other health conditions. Understanding and using the glycemic index is an important aspect of diet modification for cancer patients. However, there is also evidence that sugars may feed cancer more efficiently than starches (comprised of long chains of simple sugars), making the index slightly misleading. A study of rats fed diets with equal calories from sugars and starches, for example, found the animals on the high-sugar diet developed more cases of breast cancer. The glycemic index is a useful tool in guiding the cancer patient toward a healthier diet, but it is not infallible. By using the glycemic index alone, one could be led to thinking a cup of white sugar is healthier than a baked potato. This is because the glycemic index rating of a sugary food may be lower than that of a starchy food. To be safe, I recommend less fruit, more vegetables, and little to no refined sugars in the diet of cancer patients. What the Literature Says A mouse model of human breast cancer demonstrated that tumors are sensitive to blood-glucose levels. Sixty-eight mice were injected with an aggressive strain of breast cancer, then fed diets to induce either high blood-sugar (hyperglycemia), normoglycemia or low blood-sugar (hypoglycemia). There was a dose-dependent response in which the lower the blood glucose, the greater the survival rate. After 70 days, 8 of 24 hyperglycemic mice survived compared to 16 of 24 normoglycemic and 19 of 20 hypoglycemic. This suggests that regulating sugar intake is key to slowing breast tumor growth. In a human study, 10 healthy people were assessed for fasting blood-glucose levels and the phagocytic index of neutrophils, which measures immune-cell ability to envelop and destroy invaders such as cancer. Eating 100 g carbohydrates from glucose, sucrose, honey and orange juice all significantly decreased the capacity of neutrophils to engulf bacteria. Starch did not have this effect. A four-year study at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection in the Netherlands compared 111 biliary tract cancer patients with 480 controls. Cancer risk associated with the intake of sugars, independent of other energy sources, more than doubled for the cancer patients. Furthermore, an epidemiological study in 21 modern countries that keep track of morbidity and mortality (Europe, North America, Japan and others) revealed that sugar intake is a strong risk factor that contributes to higher breast cancer rates, particularly in older women. Limiting sugar consumption may not be the only line of defense. In fact, an interesting botanical extract from the avocado plant (Persea americana) is showing promise as a new cancer adjunct. When a purified avocado extract called mannoheptulose was added to a number of tumor cell lines tested in vitro by researchers in the Department of Biochemistry at Oxford University in Britain, they found it inhibited tumor cell glucose uptake by 25 to 75 percent, and it inhibited the enzyme glucokinase responsible for glycolysis. It also inhibited the growth rate of the cultured tumor cell lines. The same researchers gave lab animals a 1.7 mg/g body weight dose of mannoheptulose for five days; it reduced tumors by 65 to 79 percent. Based on these studies, there is good reason to believe that avocado extract could help cancer patients by limiting glucose to the tumor cells. Since cancer cells derive most of their energy from anaerobic glycolysis, Joseph Gold, M.D., director of the Syracuse (N.Y.) Cancer Research Institute and former U.S. Air Force research physician, surmised that a chemical called hydrazine sulfate, used in rocket fuel, could inhibit the excessive gluconeogenesis (making sugar from amino acids) that occurs in cachectic cancer patients. Gold’s work demonstrated hydrazine sulfate’s ability to slow and reverse cachexia in advanced cancer patients. A placebo-controlled trial followed 101 cancer patients taking either 6 mg hydrazine sulfate three times/day or placebo. After one month, 83 percent of hydrazine sulfate patients increased their weight, compared to 53 percent on placebo. A similar study by the same principal researchers, partly funded by the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Md., followed 65 patients. Those who took hydrazine sulfate and were in good physical condition before the study began lived an average of 17 weeks longer. The medical establishment may be missing the connection between sugar and its role in tumorigenesis. Consider the million-dollar positive emission tomography device, or PET scan, regarded as one of the ultimate cancer-detection tools. PET scans use radioactively labeled glucose to detect sugar-hungry tumor cells. PET scans are used to plot the progress of cancer patients and to assess whether present protocols are effective. In Europe, the “sugar feeds cancer” concept is so well accepted that oncologists, or cancer doctors, use the Systemic Cancer Multistep Therapy (SCMT) protocol. Conceived by Manfred von Ardenne in Germany in 1965, SCMT entails injecting patients with glucose to increase blood-glucose concentrations. This lowers pH values in cancer tissues via lactic acid formation. In turn, this intensifies the thermal sensitivity of the malignant tumors and also induces rapid growth of the cancer. Patients are then given whole-body hyperthermia (42 C core temperature) to further stress the cancer cells, followed by chemotherapy or radiation. SCMT was tested on 103 patients with metastasized cancer or recurrent primary tumors in a clinical phase-I study at the Von Ardenne Institute of Applied Medical Research in Dresden, Germany. Five-year survival rates in SCMT-treated patients increased by 25 to 50 percent, and the complete rate of tumor regression increased by 30 to 50 percent. The protocol induces rapid growth of the cancer, then treats the tumor with toxic therapies for a dramatic improvement in outcome. The irrefutable role of glucose in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells can enhance many therapies. Some of these include diets designed with the glycemic index in mind to regulate increases in blood glucose, hence selectively starving the cancer cells; low-glucose TPN solutions; avocado extract to inhibit glucose uptake in cancer cells; hydrazine sulfate to inhibit gluconeogenesis in cancer cells; and SCMT. A female patient in her 50s, with lung cancer, came to our clinic, having been given a death sentence by her Florida oncologist. She was cooperative and understood the connection between nutrition and cancer. She changed her diet considerably, leaving out 90 percent of the sugar she used to eat. She found that wheat bread and oat cereal now had their own wild sweetness, even without added sugar. With appropriately restrained medical therapy — including high-dose radiation targeted to tumor sites and fractionated chemotherapy, a technique that distributes the normal one large weekly chemo dose into a 60-hour infusion lasting days — a good attitude and an optimal nutrition program which included Sam’s formula nine times/day, she beat her terminal lung cancer. I saw her last month, five years later and still disease-free, probably looking better than the doctor who told her there was no hope.

124 results from eating sugar.
  1. Sugar can suppress the immune system
  2. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body
  3. Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children
  4. Sugar can produce a significant rise in triglycerides
  5. Sugar contributes to the reduction in defense against bacterial infection (infectious diseases)
  6. Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you loose
  7. Sugar reduces high density lipoproteins
  8. Sugar leads to chromium deficiency
  9. Sugar leads to cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostrate, and rectum
  10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose
  11. Sugar causes copper deficiency
  12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium
  13. Sugar can weaken eyesight
  14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
  15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia
  16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive tract
  17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children
  18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease
  19. Sugar can cause premature aging
  20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism
  21. Sugar can cause tooth decay
  22. Sugar contributes to obesity
  23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis
  24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in person with gastric or duodenal ulcers
  25. Sugar can cause arthritis
  26. Sugar can cause asthma
  27. Sugar greatly assists the uncontrolled growth of Candida Albicans (yeast infections)
  28. Sugar can cause gallstones
  29. Sugar can cause heart disease
  30. Sugar can cause appendicitis
  31. Sugar can cause multiple sclerosis
  32. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids
  33. Sugar can cause varicose veins
  34. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users
  35. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease
  36. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis
  37. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity
  38. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity
  39. Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E in the blood
  40. Sugar can decrease growth hormone
  41. Sugar can increase cholesterol
  42. Sugar can increase the systolic blood pressure
  43. Sugar can cause drowsiness and decreased activity in children
  44. High sugar intake increases advanced glycation end products (AGEs)(Sugar bound non- enzymatically to protein)
  45. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein
  46. Sugar causes food allergies
  47. Sugar can contribute to diabetes
  48. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy
  49. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children
  50. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease
  51. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA
  52. Sugar can change the structure of protein
  53. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen
  54. Sugar can cause cataracts
  55. Sugar can cause emphysema
  56. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis
  57. Sugar can promote an elevation of low density lipoproteins (LDL)
  58. High sugar intake can impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in the body
  59. Sugar lowers the enzymes ability to function
  60. Sugar intake is higher in people with Parkinson’s disease
  61. Sugar can cause a permanent altering the way the proteins act in the body
  62. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide
  63. Sugar can increase the amount of liver fat
  64. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney
  65. Sugar can damage the pancreas
  66. Sugar can increase the body’s fluid retention
  67. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement
  68. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness)
  69. Sugar can compromise the lining of the capillaries
  70. Sugar can make the tendons more brittle
  71. Sugar can cause headaches, including migraine
  72. Sugar plays a role in pancreatic cancer in women
  73. Sugar can adversely affect school children’s grades and cause learning disorders
  74. Sugar can cause an increase in delta, alpha, and theta brain waves
  75. Sugar can cause depression
  76. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer
  77. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion)
  78. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout
  79. Sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test over the ingestion of complex carbohydrates
  80. Sugar can increase the insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to low sugar diets
  81. High refined sugar diet reduces learning capacity
  82. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood proteins, albumin, and lipoproteins, which may reduce the body’s ability to handle fat and cholesterol
  83. Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease
  84. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness
  85. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance; some hormones become underactive and others become overactive
  86. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones
  87. Sugar can lead to the hypothalamus to become highly sensitive to a large variety of stimuli
  88. Sugar can lead to dizziness
  89. Diets high in sugar can cause free radicals and oxidative stress
  90. High sucrose diets of subjects with peripheral vascular disease significantly increases platelet adhesion
  91. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer
  92. Sugar feeds cancer
  93. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant
  94. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents
  95. Sugar slows food’s travel time through the gastrointestinal tract
  96. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon
  97. Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men
  98. Sugar combines and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more dificult
  99. Sugar can be a risk factor of gallbladder cancer
  100. Sugar is an addictive substance
  101. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol
  102. Sugar can exacerbate PMS
  103. Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide they produce
  104. Decrease in sugar intake can increase emotional stability
  105. The body changes sugar into 2 to 5 times more fat in the bloodstream than it does starch
  106. The rapid absorption of sugar promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects
  107. Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  108. Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition
  109. Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function
  110. Sugar has the potential of inducing abnormal metabolic processes in a normal healthy individual and to promote chronic degenerative diseases
  111. I.Vs (intravenous feedings) of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain
  112. High sucrose intake could be an important risk factor in lung cancer
  113. Sugar increases the risk of polio
  114. High sugar intake can cause epileptic seizures
  115. Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people
  116. In Intensive Care Units: Limiting sugar saves lives
  117. Sugar may induce cell death
  118. Sugar may impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in living organisms
  119. In juvenile rehabilitation camps, when children were put on a low sugar diet, there was a 44% drop in antisocial behavior
  120. Sugar can cause gastric cancer
  121. Sugar dehydrates newborns
  122. Sugar can cause gum disease
  123. Sugar increases the estradiol in young men
  124. Sugar can cause low birth weight babies

References
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  2. Couzy, F., et al.”Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals,” Progressive Food and Nutrition Science 17;1933:65-87.
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  16. Ibid.
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  59. Appleton, Nancy. New York; Lick the Sugar Habit. Avery Penguin Putnam, 1988 enzymes
  60. Hellenbrand, W. Diet and Parkinson’s Disease. A Possible Role for the Past Intake of Specific Nutrients. Results from a Self-administered Food-frequency Questionnaire in a Case-control Study. Neurology. Sep 1996;47(3):644-650. 61 Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M. Glucose and Aging. Scientific American. May 1987:00:00 90
  61. Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. March_April 1991:00:00 34_38.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Yudkin, J., Kang, S. and Bruckdorfer, K. Effects of High Dietary Sugar. British Journal of Medicine. Nov 22, 1980;1396.
  64. Goulart, F. S. Are You Sugar Smart? American Fitness. March_April 1991:00:00 34_38. Milwakuee, WI,: damage pancreas
  65. Ibid. fluid retention
  66. Ibid. bowel movement
  67. Ibid. nearsightedness
  68. Ibid. compromise the lining of the capillaries
  69. Nash, J. Health Contenders. Essence. Jan 1992; 23:00 79_81.
  70. Grand, E. Food Allergies and Migraine.Lancet. 1979:1:955_959.
  71. Michaud, D. Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. Sep 4, 2002 ;94(17):1293-300.
  72. Schauss, A. Diet, Crime and Delinquency. (Berkley Ca; Parker House, 1981.)
  73. Christensen, L. The Role of Caffeine and Sugar in Depression. Nutrition Report. Mar 1991;9(3):17-24.
  74. Ibid.
  75. Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France, European Journal of Epidemiology. 1995;11:55-65.
  76. Yudkin, J. Sweet and Dangerous.(New York:Bantam Books,1974) 129
  77. Ibid, 44
  78. Reiser, S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986:43;151-159.
  79. Reiser,S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1986;43:151-159.
  80. Molteni, R, et al. A High-fat, Refined Sugar Diet Reduces Hippocampal Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, Neuronal Plasticity, and Learning. NeuroScience. 2002;112(4):803-814.
  81. Monnier, V., Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process. Journal of Gerontology. 1990;45:105-111.
  82. Frey, J. Is There Sugar in the Alzheimer’s Disease? Annales De Biologie Clinique. 2001; 59 (3):253-257.
  83. Yudkin, J. Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):5-8.
  84. Ibid.
  85. Blacklock, N. J., Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition and Health. 1987;5(1-2):9- Curhan, G., et al. Beverage Use and Risk for Kidney Stones in Women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1998:28:534-340.
  86. Journal of Advanced Medicine. 1994;7(1):51-58.
  87. Ibid
  88. Ceriello, A. Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(2 Suppl 1):27-29.
  89. Postgraduate Medicine.Sept 1969:45:602-07.
  90. Moerman, C. J., et al. Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology . Ap 1993;.2(2):207-214.
  91. Quillin, Patrick, Cancer’s Sweet Tooth, Nutrition Science News. Ap 2000 Rothkopf, M.. Nutrition. July/Aug 1990;6(4).
  92. Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake among Pregnant Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition. Jun 1997;1113- 1117
  93. Ibid.
  94. Bostick, R. M., et al. Sugar, Meat.and Fat Intake and Non-dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women. Cancer Causes & Control. 1994:05:00 :38-53.
  95. Ibid. Kruis, W., et al. Effects of Diets Low and High in Refined Sugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation. Gut. 1991;32:367-370. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, And Obesity. Pediatrics. Mar 1999;103(3):26-32.
  96. Yudkin, J and Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988:32(2):53-55.
  97. Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. The Role of Glycation in Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992; 663:63-70.
  98. Moerman, C., et al.”Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology of Biliary Tract Cancer.” International Journal of Epidemiology. Ap 1993; 22(2):207-214.
  99. Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response. The Addiction Letter. Jul 1992:04:00 Colantuoni, C., et al. Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence. Obes Res. Jun 2002 ;10(6):478-488. Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Society, Toronto, June 17, 2001 www.mercola.com/2001/jun/30/sugar.htm
  100. Ibid.
  101. The Edell Health Letter. Sept 1991;7:1.
  102. Sunehag, A. L., et al. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition Diabetes. 1999 ;48 7991_800.
  103. Christensen L., et al. Impact of A Dietary Change on Emotional Distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology .1985;94(4):565_79.
  104. Nutrition Health Review. Fall 85 changes sugar into fat faster than fat
  105. Ludwig, D. S., et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity. Pediatrics. March 1999;103(3):26-32.
  106. Pediatrics Research. 1995;38(4):539-542. Berdonces, J. L. Attention Deficit and Infantile Hyperactivity. Rev Enferm. Jan 2001;4(1)11-4
  107. Blacklock, N. J. Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone. Nutrition Health. 1987;5(1 & 2):9-17.
  108. Lechin, F., et al. Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans. Neurophychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):4-11.
  109. Fields, M. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Aug 1998;17(4):317_321.
  110. Arieff, A. I. Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco. San Jose Mercury; June 12/86. IVs of sugar water can cut off oxygen to the brain.
  111. De Stefani, E.”Dietary Sugar and Lung Cancer: a Case_control Study in Uruguay.” Nutrition and Cancer. 1998;31(2):132_7.
  112. Sandler, Benjamin P. Diet Prevents Polio. Milwakuee, WI,:The Lee Foundation for for Nutritional Research, 1951
  113. Murphy, Patricia. The Role of Sugar in Epileptic Seizures. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. May, 2001 Murphy Is Editor of Epilepsy Wellness Newsletter, 1462 West 5th Ave., Eugene, Oregon 97402
  114. Stern, N. & Tuck, M. Pathogenesis of Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus, a Fundamental and Clinical Test. 2nd Edition, (PhiladelphiA; A:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000)943-957.
  115. Christansen, D. Critical Care: Sugar Limit Saves Lives. Science News. June 30, 2001; 159:404.
  116. Donnini, D. et al. Glucose May Induce Cell Death through a Free Radical-mediated Mechanism.Biochem Biohhys Res Commun. Feb 15, 1996:219(2):412-417.
  117. Ceriello, A. Oxicative Stress and Glycemic Regulation. Metabolism. Feb 2000;49(Suppl I):27-29.
  118. Schoenthaler, S. The Los Angeles Probation Department Diet-Behavior Program: Am Empirical Analysis of Six Institutional Settings. Int J Biosocial Res 5(2):88-89.
  119. Cornee, J., et al. A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France. European Journal of Epidemiology 11 (1995):55-65.
  120. Gluconeogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition. Diabetes. 1999 Apr;48(4):791-800.
  121. Glinsmann, W., et al. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Sugar Contained in Carbohydrate Sweeteners.” FDA Report of Sugars Task Force -1986 39 123 Yudkin, J. and Eisa, O. Dietary Sucrose and Oestradiol Concentration in Young Men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 1988;32(2):53-5.
  122. Lenders, C. M. Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Intake Among Pregnant Adolescents. Journal of Nutrition 128 (1998):1807-1810

The Omega-3 Connection: Mental Health & Physical Fitness

The Omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA derived from refined fish oils, can be of tremendous benefit to both the physical and mental health of those seeking to lead a fit and active lifestyle.

People Who Feel Better, Eat Better
It’s long been known by medical practitioners and weight-loss experts that people who consume high volumes of carbohydrates often do so to change their state of mind, to feel better, using elevated blood sugar levels as a way of feeling up rather than down. Carbohydrate rich food becomes a compensatory necessity for many people trying to keep a grip on their hectic lives in this modern and fast paced world.

There is a reason why people often indulge themselves by eating ice cream, candy, and other “comfort foods” following break-ups, job trouble, or other times of stress… It makes them feel better. Unfortunately the sensation lasts only a short while as the sugar high wears off quickly and results in a “crash” accompanied by fatigue and often depression. In many cases a cycle develops. Feel bad…eat. Feel worse…eat. Tired…eat. Down…eat. This type of behavior sets the stage for a pattern of poor eating habits that often lead to weight gain and other health concerns.

Improved mental health and sense of well being may substantially reduce a person’s tendency to reach for high carbohydrate foods and help prevent binge eating due to depression and/or anxiety.

Serotonin
Serotonin is an important chemical messenger responsible for a positive mood and an overall sense of well-being. One of the ways that refined fish oils high in EPA and DHA improve mental health is by making it easier for serotonin to pass through the cell by influencing receptor activity. The way EPA and DHA affect serotonin levels is actually quite similar to how many prescription antidepressant drugs and mood stabilizers work in the body, but without adverse side effects.

Serotonin levels are commonly lower in people who suffer from depression or have compulsive tendencies. Recent studies have also shown a link between high depression rates and low Omega-3 fish oil consumption in various regions of the world. The United States has been shown to be especially at risk due to the average American’s high intake of processed foods. Supplementing your diet with a high quality DHA/EPA product helps stabilize and improve your mood and general sense of well being. Furthermore, a stable, healthy state of mind reduces your tendency to binge on unhealthy carbohydrate rich foods.

Blood Flow
Research has shown that people who suffer from depression often have a lower level of blood flow to the brain and thus, lower levels of oxygen, nutrient, and energy exchange. Several compounds, like caffeine for example, produce a mental and physiological high by dialating (expanding) blood vessels in the brain and increasing blood flow. Unfortunately these compounds often come with a number of other side effects or are too effective at what they do, forcing your mind into an over-drive state that it cannot maintain without causing adverse effects and extreme fatigue. These compounds are also responsible for upsetting the delicate balance of other important neuro-chemicals. Refined Omega-3 fish oils however, seem to produce a mild to moderate increase in both blood flow and nutrient absorption in brain tissues without adverse side effects. The result is an improved distribution of nutrients such as oxygen and glucose that are critical to a well functioning and healthy brain.

Other Health Benefits
Some of the top researchers in the world have shown that Omega-3s from fish oil play a role in preventing heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. The Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil have been shown to reverse atherosclerosis, ameliorate angina, and reduce the risk of heart attack, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. They help maintain the elasticity of artery walls, preventing unhealthy forms of blood clotting, reducing blood pressure and help stabilize heart rhythm.

Omega-3 fatty acids are beginning to play an integral role in preventative medicine as they are believed to help with prevention of certain chronic diseases generally associated with aging. More recently, they have been used to combat clinical depression, including postpartum depression, and to help relieve symptoms of bipolar disorder and attention deficit disorder. Omega-3 fatty acids may also play a role in alleviating stress and minimizing tendencies toward angry and violent behavior.

Quality Sources Of Omega-3 Fish Oil
It is widely recognized that a high quality refined Omega-3 Fish Oil is one of the healthiest supplements you can add to your diet. Determining high quality in this sense requires a look at the sources for fish oil before refinement. The best Omega-3 concentrations come from select cold-water fish harvested from open waters (as opposed to farm raised). Sadly, much of the salmon in the markets and served in restaurants is farm raised. A pharmaceutical grade refined Omega-3 fish oil is the best way to supplement your diet with Omega-3 fatty acids.

Alternative sources of Omega-3 fatty acids do exist, but they are only marginally effective. For example, flax seed and some grain oils contain of a number of short-chain Omega-3 fatty acids. Unfortunately, the most beneficial Omega-3 fatty acids are long-chain fatty acids such as EPA and DHA and although the body does have the ability to construct long-chain fatty acids from short-chain fatty acids, the conversion rate is relatively low. A person would have to consume a high volume of flax seed or grain oils to receive even a fraction of the benefit afforded by a small quantity of refined Omega-3 fish oil.

Contrary to popular belief, cod liver oil is also a poor choice due to its low concentration of long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids and high content of the Vitamins A and D. Consuming enough cod liver oil to properly supplement your diet with Omega-3 fatty acids would most likely result in overdosing on Vitamins A and D.

Pharmaceutical grade fish oil supplements are scientifically refined and tested to ensure low levels of toxic contaminants like arsenic, mercury, and lead. In addition, the concentrations of EPA and DHA may be substantially higher in these specially designed products than in fish oil alone.

Tri-Glyceride vs. Ethyl Ester
In nature, Omega-3 fatty acids are found in what’s known as a Tri-Glyceride form. That is to say that the Omega-3 fatty acids molecular structure is that of a Tri-Glyceride form with three units of fatty acid on a Tri-Glyceride base. The refinement process for fish oils often requires stripping these fatty acids from the Tri-Glyceride base and chemically fixing them in an Ethyl Ester form. Only a few select companies offer refined high concentration Omega-3 fish oils that have been reverted back to Tri-Glyceride form after refinement. Although both forms appear to provide positive benefits, science seems to indicate that the Tri-Glyceride form may be utilized in a more efficient and complete manor in the body. Therefore it appears that a supplement containing refined Tri-Glyceride form Omega-3 fatty acids is preferable to a supplement in Ethyl Ester form.

– Jeffrey Rose is the director of the Advanced Hypnosis Center in New York, NY.

Cell Phones, be aware

Study indicates mobile phones increase tumor risk 

STOCKHOLM (Reuters) — Ten or more years of mobile phone use increases the risk of developing acoustic neuroma, a benign tumor on the auditory nerve, according to a study released on Wednesday by Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.

The risk was confined to the side of the head where the phone was usually held and there were no indications of increased risk for those who have used their mobile for less than 10 years, the Karolinska Institute said in a statement.

The institute, one of Europe’s largest medical universities and a clinical and biomedical research center, awards the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.

“At the time when the study was conducted only analogue mobile phones had been in use for more than 10 years and therefore we cannot determine if there results are confined to use of analogue phones or if the results would be similar also after long-term use of digital (GSM) phones,” it said.

The mobile phone market is now dominated by GSM phones, which replaced the bulkier and less advanced analogue phones in many markets the mid- and late-1990s.

The mobile phone industry has said there is no scientific evidence of negative health effects from use of mobile phones.

The Karolinska Institute said 150 people with acoustic neuroma and 600 healthy people participated in the study.

“The risk of acoustic neuroma was almost doubled for persons who started to use their mobile at least 10 years prior to diagnosis,” the institute said.

“When the side of the head on which the phone was usually held was taken into consideration, we found that the risk of acoustic neuroma was almost four times higher on the same side as the phone was held and virtually normal on the other side.”

Finland’s Nokia is the world’s biggest mobile phone maker.

Other large producers include Motorola of the United States, South Korea’s Samsung Electronics, Germany’s Siemens and Swedish-Japanese joint venture Sony Ericsson.

Global mobile phone sales have been booming as thousands of new users sign up every day and existing subscribers replace their old handsets with new ones, capable of taking pictures or playing music.

You’ve heard the warnings–turn off your cell phone on an airplane; don’t use your phone inside a hospital–and the horror stories of car accidents and brain tumors caused by cell phones. So, how real are the risks of cell phones? 

Cell Phones and Brain Cancer

Cell phones produce electromagnetic radiation of a frequency somewhere between what comes out of a television and what comes out of a leaky microwave oven. This radiation penetrates the brain, a short distance from the phone’s antenna, and could theoretically cause damage by heating up the brain’s cells.

The heating is slight, however, as the electromagnetic radiation from cell phones is different from the ionizing radiation, found in X-rays, which damages DNA and is linked to cancer.

According to researchers, studies have shown that the radiation from cell phones does not cause cancer.

Cell Phones Interfering With Hospital Equipment

The chances of your cell phone causing a major problem in a hospital are slight, according to one study.

The study examined the affects of cell phones on heart and lung monitoring devices used in hospitals. While the phones did cause interference, the interference was not enough to cause concern.

However, the tests were conducted on devices that were not being used on patients. Researchers say that more tests need to be done to determine the extent of cell phone interference on these devices when patients are actually connected to them.

Cell Phones and Airplanes

NASA’s Aviation Safety Reporting System’s “Passenger Electronic Devises Database Report Set” contains several reports of incidents “personal electronic devices” seemed to create disturbances in aircrafts’ electronic systems.

Controlled tests have also shown that cell phones can, indeed, interfere with avionics equipment on airliners. In the tests, the exact position of the cell phone on the aircraft made a big difference, as levels of interference varied significantly as cell phones were moved throughout the fuselages of test aircraft.

Another fear is that cell phones may interfere with navigation and other aircraft systems.

Aside from interference to airplanes, the Federal Communication Commission bans the use of cell phones on airplanes because they could interfere with cell phone systems on the ground.

Cell phones were designed for use on the ground, where the nearest node will pick up the call’s signal. From the air, moving at several hundred miles an hour, your cell phone’s signal could reach miles and hit many nodes at the same time, causing a disruption.

Cell Phones and Driving

One state, and many cities, requires that drivers use a hands-free headset if they want to use a cell phone while driving. However, although the devices leave hands free, the driver may still be distracted.

According to research, having a telephone conversation while driving hinders driving ability. One study found that using a cell phone while driving increases the risk of crashing by four times, and a hands-free device didn’t change the risk.

Another study, which evaluated the driving abilities of college students while talking on cell phones, found they students missed traffic signals and reacted more slowly to events when they were using either a cell phone or a hands-free device. Comparatively, when the students only listened to the radio or an audio book, there driving was less affected.

CNN Money January 30, 2003


Study: Cell phones damaged rat brain cells

Published 2/4/2003 6:21 PM
LUND, Sweden, Feb. 4 (UPI) — Brain cells in rats died when exposed to the radio signals from cell phones, a new study released Tuesday reports.

Cells in three areas of the brain — the cortex, which plays a role in high-level mental function; the hippocampus, which is important in learning; and the basal ganglia, which plays a role in the experience of sensation — were affected, said Leif Salford, lead author and a researcher at the University of Lund.

The neurons appear to be affected selectively, however.

“They’re spread between totally normal neurons, so in the different parts of the brain they are surrounded by cells that are looking fine,” Salford told United Press International. The reason for the difference is unclear, as is the mechanism behind the death of the neurons, he said.

In research reported online in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, three groups of eight animals were exposed for two hours of different intensity radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Animals that received more intense fields showed more dead and damaged neurons.

“There has been little evidence that with this low level of (radio frequency) could interfere with brain functioning,” said Jo-Anne Basile, vice president in charge of external relations at the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association in Washington, D.C., a trade group of cell phone makers and carriers.

“Our position on this is that you can’t draw any conclusions from a single study,” she told UPI. The study needs to be replicated in other labs, she said, and Salford agreed. Salford’s research also involved a very small number of test subjects.

He said although the research does not demonstrate cell phone use is harmful to people, “we do say the repeated use in the growing brain for decades might reduce the capacity of the brain to withstand aging.”

The rats in the study were between 12 and 26 weeks of age, “comparable to human mobile phone-addicted teenagers with respect to age,” according to the study.

Although the animals were not tested to see whether they displayed any abnormal behavior following their cell damage, no such behavior was observed, Salford said.

Regarding cell phone use, Salford recommended employing hands-free cell phones as often as possible and keeping the phone as far from the brain as possible.

“The more we can reduce the energy that goes into the brain, the better,” he commented, adding that the use of cell phones is a “huge biological experiment.”

Although insisting that “all of the studies to date continue to suggest there is no harm from cell phones,” Basile agreed that if people are concerned about the use of cell phones, using hands-free devices would be a viable alternative.

Copyright © 2001-2004 United Press International

Radio signals from cell phones caused cells in three areas of rats’ brains to die. 

The three affected areas were the cortex, which plays a role in high-level mental function; the hippocampus, which is important in learning; and the basal ganglia, which plays a role in the experience of sensation.

Researchers exposed three groups of rats to different intensity radio frequency electromagnetic fields for a period of two hours. Rats that received more intense exposure had more dead and damaged neurons.

Damage to neurons appear to be selective, however, as damaged cells were often surrounded by normal cells. The reasons for the selectivity, along with the mechanism causing the neuron death, are not known.

Researchers say that the study does not demonstrate cell phone use is harmful to people, but recommend the use of a hands-free device to keep the cell phone as far from the brain as possible, adding that the use of cell phones is a “huge biological experiment.”

The safety of cell phones has been brought into question once again by research that suggests radio waves from the devices could promote the growth of tumors. Paradoxically, the study suggests that the radiation makes tumors grow more aggressively by initially killing off cancer cells. 

Cell Biologist Fiorenzo Marinelli and his team at the National Research Council in Bologna, Italy, decided to investigate whether radio waves had any effect on leukemia cells after previous studies indicated that the disease might be more common among mobile phone users. The life cycle of leukemia cells is well understood, making it relatively easy to spot changes in behavior.

The team exposed leukemia cells in the lab to 900-megahertz radio waves at a power level of 1 milliwatt and then looked at the activity of a gene that triggers cell suicide. Many European mobile networks operate at 900 megahertz, and maximum power outputs are typically 2 watts, although they regularly use only one-tenth of this power.

After 24 hours of continuous exposure to the radio waves, the suicide genes were turned on in far more leukemia cells than in a control population that had not been exposed. What is more, 20 percent more exposed cells had died than in the controls.

But after 48 hours exposure, the apparently lethal effect of the radiation went into reverse. Rather than more cells dying, Marinelli found that a survival mechanism kicked in. Three genes that trigger cells to multiply were turned on in a high proportion of the surviving cells, making them replicate ferociously. The cancer, although briefly beaten back, had become more aggressive.

DNA damage?

Marinelli presented his results this month at the International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Greek island of Rhodes. While the results do not show a direct health threat from mobile phones, they provide fresh evidence that radiation from such devices could play an important role in activating genes that might help cancer cells thrive.

“We don’t know what the effects would be on healthy human cells,” says Marinelli, “but in leukemia cells the response is always the same.” Marinelli suspects the radiation may initially damage DNA, and that this interferes with the cells’ biochemical signals in a way that ultimately triggers a defensive mechanism.

Many scientists believe that because radiation from cell phones does not have enough energy to break chemical bonds, it cannot damage cells. The only way damage could occur, they say, is if the radio waves heated tissues up.

But British research earlier in 2002, by Molecular Toxicologist David de Pomerai at the University of Nottingham, showed that radio waves can cause biological effects that are not due to heating. He found that nematode worms exposed to radio waves showed an increase in fertility-the opposite effect from what would be expected from heating.

“Confused field”

Marinelli’s study is intriguing, says de Pomerai. “But I’m far from convinced that these authors are looking at any reproducible and real phenomena,” he says. Other studies have shown mobile phone radiation to have no effect on cell death, de Pomerai adds.

An inquiry in April 2000 by the British government found no evidence of any health risks from mobile phones. But it still recommended that people take a precautionary approach until further evidence emerged. In particular, it suggested children, whose brains are still developing, should not use mobile phones excessively.

“It’s a very confused field,” admits Colin Blakemore, a physiologist at the University of Oxford and a member of the British National Radiological Protection Board’s advisory group on non-ionizing radiation. People should place more reliance on animal studies than lab-based experiments on cells, he says.

But de Pomerai insists that a consensus is emerging that non-ionizing radiation can indirectly damage DNA by affecting its repair system. If the DNA repair mechanism does not work as well as it should, mutations in cells could accumulate with disastrous consequences. “Cells with unrepaired DNA damage are likely to be far more aggressively cancerous,” he says.

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